WIA Questions and Answers


Career Pathways

1. Is there any place that a person can discover new pathways in each occupation within an industry? Occupations within industries/industries within occupations?

Answer: Career paths are explored in the BLS Occupational Outlook Handbook.

The Occupational Outlook Handbook and Career Guide to Industries explore occupations within industries and industries within occupations. Also, in development, is a system where you can explore employment projections in Wisconsin for occupations within industries and industries within occupations. (10/04)

2. How do we align the industries and occupations if we are trying to discover career pathways?

Answer: Career paths are explored in the Occupational Outlook Handbook from the U.S. Department of Labor/Bureau of Labor Statistics. The Occupational Outlook Handbook and Career Guide to Industries explore occupations within industries and industries within occupations. Also, in development, is a system where you can explore employment projections in Wisconsin for occupations within industries and industries within occupations. (10/04)

3. Is there somewhere that indicates the way up the career ladder?

Answer: O*Net and WISCareers.

WISCareers can be used to find career ladders for certain occupations. It depends upon the occupation, whether or not you will find career ladders. For example, Nursing Aides have numerous career ladders to various medical related occupations. Administrative assistant is another occupation that has various career ladders. A good source to find information on occupational career ladders is America's Career InfoNet. (10/04)

Employment

1. How is underemployment counted at time of registration (entering employment)? To count employee earnings can work against WIA philosophy.

Answer: Under WIA, "Underemployment" is a specific term related to the eligibility of displaced homemakers for WIA dislocated worker services [WIA legislation, Section 101 (10)]. Employed adults who have difficulty retaining employment that allows for self-sufficiency are eligible for WIA adult services.

While these individuals may be considered "underemployed" in a general sense, the term is not formally applied to individuals in the WIA adult program. [20 CFR 663.220 identifies "employed" and "underemployed" as eligible adults to receive intensive services]

For purposes of measuring Entered Employment, individuals are either Employed or Not Employed. Participants who are employed at participation will not be counted in the Entered Employment performance measures.

They will be counted in the Retention and Average Earnings Change. The purpose of WIA is to "provide workforce investment activities that increase the employment, retention, and earnings of participants, and increase occupational skill attainment by participants."

2. Does one day of employment count in retention performance standards? Any way around it?

Answer: Yes, one day of employment counts. No, there is no way around it.

3. What constitutes employed at time of eligibility? What constitutes underemployment?

Answer: An individual employed at participation is one who, during the seven (7) consecutive days prior to participation did any work at all as a paid employee, in his or her own business, profession or farm; worked 15 hours or more as an unpaid worker in an enterprise operated by a member of the family; or is one who was not working, but has a job or business from which he or she was temporarily absent because of illness, bad weather, vacation, labor-management dispute, or personal reasons, whether or not paid by the employer for time-off, and whether or not seeking another job. [Training and Employment Guidance Letter (TEGL) 7-99]

If the individual has a job at time of participation, the person is employed; any work at all is considered to be employment. Individuals who are still working but are eligible for WIA dislocated worker services by virtue of having received a notice of termination are considered to be Not Employed.

Occupational Projections

1. Titles and job functions are changing. Where can we see these trends?

Answer: One interesting place to look is O*Net, mentioned above. Also interesting is the Occupational Outlook Handbook from the U.S. Department of Labor/Bureau of Labor Statistics. They discuss changes developing in select occupations. (10/04)

2. Can the occupational projections information be provided on a regional basis, if not on county basis? There are WIA differences across the state and many customers do not want to move; they need local information.

Answer: Yes, occupational projections are available regionally. Both short-term and long-term projections are available by Workforce Development Area. (10/04)

3. How do you factor in "foreign" competition when predicting growth? Things can change very quickly when China enters a market, for example, furniture manufacturing.

Answer: Anticipated changes in global markets, including new competition from other countries, are factored into the projections to the extent possible. The Wisconsin projections are based on (1) past employment trends; (2) the most recent national projections; (3) a variety of national, regional, and state economic indicators; and (4) insights and knowledge from a panel of experts on the Wisconsin economy. However, unforeseen events can and do happen. In order to keep abreast of the latest changes in the economy, short-term projections are updated every year and long-term projections are updated every two years. (10/04)

4. Most of the jobs in our area and Wisconsin, that will see the greatest growth (not replacement) in the next five (5) years are low-income jobs, i.e., cashiers, retail, waiters/waitresses, bartenders, stock clerks, food prep, and housekeeping. Is this a national trend?

Answer: Actually, the jobs you mention above do not have the greatest growth; rather, they have the highest number of job openings, which does include replacements. Many of the jobs with the highest expected growth are in the health or computer industry, and tend to have higher earnings than the occupations mentioned in the question above.

Please see short-term projections tables and click on the tab at the bottom labeled 'Occ fastest'. (10/04)

5. How do you compare projections to growth?

Answer: Do you mean how do we compare our projections to what actually happens? Evaluating past projections is part of the process; we see what worked and what didn't, evaluate why, and factor that into any new projections we do. (10/04)

6. Do you factor jobs [in the occupational projections] that go overseas?

Answer: Anticipated changes in global markets, including new competition from other countries, are factored into the projections to the extent possible. The Wisconsin projections are based on (1) past employment trends; (2) the most recent national projections; (3) a variety of national, regional, and state economic indicators; and (4) insights and knowledge from a panel of experts on the Wisconsin economy. However, unforeseen events can and do happen. In order to keep abreast of the latest changes in the economy, short-term projections are updated every year and long-term projections are updated every two years. (10/04)

7. How do you factor in the number of job openings? Doesn't it take three to five years to factor in for customers who want to be Registered Nurses? The junction for demand and supply is twice as high.

Answer: We project the number of registered nurses that will actually be employed, not how many will be in demand, nor how many will be in the labor force (employed or otherwise). We take into account the proportion of nurses employed in different industries, and how that will change along with the growth in these industries. Also, we factor in population growth. If the labor market continues to function as we expect, then the supply will exist to fill these openings. However, as you suggest, it is possible that if employers could get the people, the number of jobs filled would be even higher than what the projections indicate. (10/04)

8. I have a few customers in the information technology field that are unable to obtain employment. Is this field already increasing or is that yet to come?

Answer: The outlook for computer-related jobs is positive, and I think the number of opportunities will increase. (10/04)

10. Why is the Occupational Projections Table not alphabetized?

Answer: The Occupational Table is sorted by SOC Codes. We use this system because it groups similar types of occupations together. If you want them alphabetized, just use the arrows at the top of the title field and they are listed alphabetically in a drop down menu. Or you can download the table to your computer and do a sort in Excel. (10/04)

11. When are we going to get to feel the effects from newly emerging jobs?

Answer: You should be feeling the beginnings of newly emerging jobs now and this would continue and grow stronger. (10/04)

12. How often is this data re-adjusted when there are major events happening that affects specific areas of employment in Wisconsin?

Answer: The long-term projections are updated every other year, and the short term projections every year.

Please keep in mind the projections are not intended to capture every movement of the labor market each month. They are produced to show overall trends of occupations and industries over time. (10/04)

Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) Codes

1. How do you know what Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) codes to use?

Answer: The O*Net System uses SOC and O*Net codes. On O*Net you can search for SOC codes by looking up occupational titles.

A good place to look up SOC codes is O*NET; here there is a keyword search. (10/04)

Training Programs and Providers

1. What is the purpose of the Individual Training Accounts (ITAs)? Who is the audience from the DWD view?

Answer: Individual Training Accounts (ITAs) are offered as vouchers to qualified training seekers to offset the cost of training that will lead to an occupation in demand as an outcome.

The Workforce Investment Act (WIA) requires training services to be provided in a manner that "maximizes consumer choice in the selection of an eligible provider" [WIA legislation, Section 134]. This selection process includes consideration of performance and cost information for the training program and its provider.

DWD considers its priority audience for this information to be WIA participants and their case managers. Training providers, and their contacts in Wisconsin's 11 Workforce Development Areas (WDAs) are key stakeholders.

2. What is the source of data for the Statewide Eligible Training Programs and Providers List (ETPL), and who enters the data?

Answer:
The information for training programs found on the Statewide Eligible Training Programs and Providers List (aka Statewide List, or ETPL) comes directly from the training provider, and is approved by one of Wisconsin's 11 Workforce Development Boards (WDBs) before it appears on the Statewide List. http://www.wisconsinjobcenter.org/ita

Training providers complete a standard application and submit it to the WDB for approval. If the application is approved, the WDB sends the application to the State for inclusion on the Statewide List. The State ensures that the application is complete and not in violation of the WIA before posting.

The Statewide List contains two sources of performance information on training providers and their programs: ASSET and Training Providers.

Performance information from training providers is available at the ITA web site http://www.wisconsinjobcenter.org/ita

"Part 2: Performance Information"of the training provider application collects these data, which are self-reported by training providers. For more detail on this process, see the Initial Year Policy located on the above WIA web site.

All Wisconsin technical colleges and public universities receive funding under Title IV of the Higher Education Act and by policy are exempted from providing performance information in Part 2 of the application. Training providers that do not receive funding from Title IV fall in the Workforce Investment Act's category of "Other". All "Other" training providers must respond to Part 2: Performance Information questions: completion rate, percent of the individuals that obtained unsubsidized employment, hourly wages at placement, and the time period the information is from.

In addition to these self-reported data, ASSET data on individual training providers and their programs are found on the ITA web site: http://www.wisconsinjobcenter.org/ita

They are titled "Scorecard: Training Providers" and "Scorecard: Training Program". This information reflects information entered in the ASSET system about a WIA participant's ITA-related outcome. In general, it shows the number of participants served by a training provider, the number of participants that completed a training program, the number of participants that did not complete the program, and the number of participants that found employment.

When used in conjunction with other details about the training program and cost, these details provide the foundation for informed choice by a training seeker in collaboration with his or her case manager.

3. What is the status of the WIA State List of Eligible Training Programs and Providers?

Answer: DWD continues its work to make Wisconsin's Statewide List even more accessible and user friendly. Pending WIA reauthorization could change the policies that impact ITAs, and the eligibility of programs that appear on Wisconsin's Statewide List.

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